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Galicia (Central Europe)
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Galicia (Central Europe)

The name Galicia also can refer to an autonomous region of Spain.

Galicia (Polish: Galicja, Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Romanian: Galiţia) is the name of a region of Central Europe. The region takes its name from the earliest regional capital, the city of Halicz in Ukraine (Polish spelling; Ukrainian Галич (Halych)). Since around the early 19th century, Galicia consists of the area just north of the Carpathians to the east of Little Poland and north and northwest of Transylvania/Moldavia (Romania).

Table of contents
1 History
2 Principal cities
3 Historical population figures
4 See also

History

Some historians hold that the name, "Galicia" recalls its former inhabitants, the eastern Gauls, who also may have left their names imprinted on the landscape in Anatolian Galatia and in the Romanian county Galati. Another hypothesis is that the name refers to the local crows, or rooks, seen in the area around the capital city. According to some historians, the local name then was extended to the Romanian/Moldavian city of Galati in the 13th or 14th century, when the state of Halych-Volynia extended from the region of Halychyna proper, over Moldavia, up to the Black Sea.

The region of Galicia appears too have been incorporated, in large part, into the Empire of Great Moravia. It appears in an historical reference 981, when the ruler of Kievan Rus' took over the Red Ruthenia (Cherven' Rus') cities in his military campaign on the border with Poland. In the following century, the area shifted briefly to Poland (1018-1031) and then back to Ruthenia. As the successor state to Kievan-Rus', Galicia comprised an autonomous principality from 1087 to 1253 (united to Volynia in the state of Halych-Volynia from around 1200), which became a vassal kingdom of the Mongol Golden Horde from 1253 to 1340. During this time, the princes of Galicia moved the capital from Halych to L'viv. They also attempted to gain papal and broader support in Europe for an alliance against the Mongols. Their efforts were rewarded by papal acclamation of the prince of Halich-Volynia as the "King of Rus'", an era which came to an end around 1340-1349, when King Casimir III of Poland conquered Galicia. Between 1372 and 1387, the area belonged to Hungary. The sister state of Volynia, together with Kyiv, then fell under Lithuanian control and the mantle of Rus' was transferred from Halych-Volynia to Lithuania.

Thereafter, Galicia comprised a Polish possession called the Ruthenian Voivodship. This began an era of heavy Polish settlement among the Ruthenian population. Armenian and Jewish emigration to the region also occurred in large numbers. Numerous castles were built during this time and some new cities were founded: Stanislawow ("Ivano-Frankivsk" today) and Krystynopol ("Chervonohrad" today).

In 1772, Galicia became the largest part of the area annexed by Austria in the First Partition. As such, the Austrian region of Poland and Ukraine was known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria to underline the Hungarian claims to the country. However, a large portion of Little Poland was also added to the province, which changed the geographical reference of the term, Galicia. L'viv -- Lemberg served as the capital of Austrian Galicia, which was dominated by the Polish aristocracy, despite the fact that the population of the eastern half of the province was in the majority Ruthenian or Ukrainian with large minorities of Jews and Poles. The Poles were also overwhelmingly more numerous in the newly-added western half of Galicia. In 1846, the former Polish capital city of Cracow became part of the province following the Austrian suppression of that independent republic. From 1868, Galicia was an autonomus province of Austria-Hungary with Polish as an official language.

In 1918, Western Galicia became a part of the restored Republic of Poland, while the local Ukrainian population briefly declared the independence of Eastern Galicia as the "Western Ukrainian Republic". Eventually, the whole of the province was recaptured by Poles. Poland's annexation of Eastern Galicia was internationally recognized in 1923. After the Nazi-Soviet pact, Stalin annexed Eastern Galicia to the Soviet Republic of Ukraine. The border was later recognized by Allies in 1945, and the region was ethnically cleansed by Soviets and a communist puppet Polish government (Wisla Action). The old province, as modified by Austria around 1800, remains divided today, with the western part Polish, and the original eastern part, Ukrainian.

Principal cities

Historical population figures

Population of the Western Galicia in 1931

Population of the Eastern Galicia in 1931

Data for Lwow Voivodship in the table differs from the data above. Probably in the table are shown data for Eastern part of the voivodship.

 

Locality

Total

Polish

%

Ukrainian

%

Yiddish

%

Other

%

Southeast Poland

5,053,186

2,007,215

39.7%

2,650,997

52.5%

353,928

7.0%

41,046

.8%

Lwow Voivodship

Bobrka

97,124

30,762

31.7%

60,444

62.2%

5,533

5.7%

385

.4%

Dobromil

93,970

35,945

38.3%

52,463

55.8%

4,997

5.3%

565

.6%

Drohobycz

194,456

91,935

47.3%

79,214

40.7%

20,484

10.5%

2,823

1.5%

Grodek Jagielonski

85,007

33,228

39.1%

47,812

56.2%

2,975

3.5%

992

1.2%

Jaworow

86,762

26,938

31.0%

55,868

64.4%

3,044

3.5%

912

1.1%

Lwow city

312,231

198,212

63.5%

35,137

11.3%

75,316

24.1%

3,566

1.1%

Lwow county

142,800

80,712

56.5%

58,395

40.9%

1,569

1.1%

2,124

1.5%

Mosciska

89,460

49,989

55.9%

37,196

41.6%

2,164

2.4%

111

.1%

Rudki

79,170

38,417

48.5%

36,254

45.8%

4,247

5.4%

252

.3%

Sambor

133,814

56,818

42.5%

68,222

51.0%

7,794

5.8%

980

.7%

Zolkiew

95,507

35,816

37.5%

56,060

58.7%

3,344

3.5%

287

.3%

Brzozow

10,109

4,484

44.4%

5,120

50.6%

338

3.3%

167

1.7%

Jaroslaw

47,668

29,482

61.8%

17,212

36.1%

706

1.5%

268

.6%

Lesko

60,120

17,837

29.7%

34,457

57.3%

6,960

11.6%

866

1.4%

Lubaczow

51,885

23,686

45.7%

24,470

47.2%

3,503

6.8%

226

.4%

Przemysl

104,361

55,108

52.8%

47,380

45.4%

1,638

1.6%

235

.2%

Rawa Ruska

107,594

23,063

21.4%

72,638

67.5%

10,325

9.6%

1,568

1.5%

Sanok

12,395

6,140

49.5%

5,891

47.5%

363

2.9%

1

.0%

Sokal

55,677

21,681

38.9%

30,867

55.4%

2,826

5.1%

303

.5%

Turka

112,385

25,673

22.8%

78,884

70.2%

7,492

6.7%

336

.3%

Totals

1,972,495

885,926

44.9%

903,984

45.8%

165,618

8.4%

16,967

.9%

Tarnopol Voivodship

Borszczow

103,277

46,153

44.7%

52,612

50.9%

4,302

4.2%

210

.2%

Brody

91,248

32,843

36.0%

50,490

55.3%

7,640

8.4%

275

.3%

Brzezany

103,824

48,168

46.4%

51,757

49.9%

3,716

3.6%

183

.2%

Buczacz

139,062

60,523

43.5%

70,336

50.6%

8,059

5.8%

144

.1%

Czortkow

84,008

36,486

43.4%

40,866

48.6%

6,474

7.7%

182

.2%

Kamionka Strumilowa

82,111

41,693

50.8%

35,178

42.8%

4,737

5.8%

503

.6%

Kopyczynce

88,614

38,158

43.1%

45,196

51.0%

5,164

5.8%

96

.1%

Podhajce

95,663

46,710

48.8%

45,031

47.1%

3,464

3.6%

458

.5%

Przemyslany

89,908

52,269

58.1%

32,777

36.5%

4,445

4.9%

417

.5%

Radziechow

69,313

25,427

36.7%

39,970

57.7%

3,277

4.7%

639

.9%

Skalat

89,215

60,091

67.4%

25,369

28.4%

3,654

4.1%

101

.1%

Tarnopol

142,220

93,874

66.0%

42,374

29.8%

5,836

4.1%

136

.1%

Trembowla

84,321

50,178

59.5%

30,868

36.6%

3,173

3.8%

102

.1%

Zaleszczyki

72,021

27,549

38.3%

41,147

57.1%

3,261

4.5%

64

.1%

Zbaraz

65,579

32,740

49.9%

29,609

45.2%

3,142

4.8%

88

.1%

Zborow

81,413

39,624

48.7%

39,174

48.1%

2,522

3.1%

93

.1%

Zloczow

118,609

56,628

47.7%

55,381

46.7%

6,066

5.1%

534

.5%

Totals

1,600,406

789,114

49.3%

728,135

45.5%

78,932

4.9%

4,225

.3%

Stanislawow Voivodship

Dolina

118,373

21,158

17.9%

83,880

70.9%

9,031

7.6%

4,304

3.6%

Horodenka

92,894

27,751

29.9%

59,957

64.5%

5,031

5.4%

155

.2%

Kalusz

102,252

18,637

18.2%

77,506

75.8%

5,109

5.0%

1,000

1.0%

Kolomyja

176,000

52,006

29.5%

110,533

62.8%

11,191

6.4%

2,270

1.3%

Kosow

93,952

6,718

7.2%

79,838

85.0%

6,730

7.2%

666

.7%

Nadworna

140,702

16,907

12.0%

112,128

79.7%

11,020

7.8%

647

.5%

Rohatyn

127,252

36,152

28.4%

84,875

66.7%

6,111

4.8%

114

.1%

Stanislawow

198,359

49,032

24.7%

120,214

60.6%

26,996

13.6%

2,117

1.1%

Stryj

152,631

25,186

16.5%

106,183

69.6%

15,413

10.1%

5,849

3.8%

Sniatyn

78,025

17,206

22.1%

56,007

71.8%

4,341

5.6%

471

.6%

Tlumacz

116,028

44,958

38.7%

66,659

57.5%

3,677

3.2%

734

.6%

Zydaczow

83,817

16,464

19.6%

61,098

72.9%

4,728

5.6%

1,527

1.8%

Totals

1,480,285

332,175

22.4%

1,018,878

68.8%

109,378

7.4%

19,854

1.3%

See also