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Federal subjects of Russia
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Federal subjects of Russia

Russia is a federation which consists of 89 subjects (Russian: субъект(ы); English transliteration: subyekty, sing. subyekt). These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation - 2 delegates each - in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). However, they do differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. Each subject of the federation belongs to one of the following categories:

  1. 21 republics (Russian: республики, sing. республика; English transliteration: respubliki, sing. respublika'') - most autonomous, each has its own constitution, parliament and president; represented by the central government in international affairs; usually home to a specific ethnic minority; in some of these, especially in the republic of Chechnya, separatist tendencies are quite strong.
  2. 49 oblasts (provinces) (Russian: области, sing. область; English transliteration: oblasti, sing. oblast) - most common, regular administrative units.
  3. 6 krais (territories) (Russian: края, sing. край; English transliteration: kraya, sing. krai or kray, the latter being more grammatically correct, but less common) - similar to provinces but usually more peripheral and less populated.
  4. 1 autonomous oblast (Russian: автономная область; English transliteration: avtonomnaya oblast).
  5. 10 autonomous districts (Russian: автономные округа, sing. автономный округ; English transliteration: avtonomnyye okruga, sing. avtonomny okrug) - more autonomous than provinces but less than republics; usually with substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
  6. 2 federal cities (Russian: федеральные города, sing. федеральный город; English transliteration: federalnyye goroda, sing. federalny gorod) - major cities that function as separate regions.

Some of these subjects will be merged into larger territories starting in 2004. The first new one to be formed will be the Perm Krai, comprising the current Perm Oblast and Autonomous district of the Komi-Permyaks. The new territory is scheduled to come into being on December 1, 2005. A referendum to decide on merging the Irkutsk Oblast with the Autonomous district of the Ust-Ordinsk Buryats into an Irkutsk Krai will be held in 2004. Other projects include incorporating the Autonomous districts of the Evenks and Taymyr into a larger Krasnoyarsk Krai; merging that of the Yamal Nenetses with the Tyumen Oblast to form a Tyumen Krai; combining the Autonomous district of the Aga Buryats with the Chita Oblast; and even merging the existing Arkhangelsk and Murmansk Oblasts, the Komi Republic and the Autonomous district of the Nenetses to form a proposed Northern, or Arctic Krai, or a Republic of Pomors-Nenetses.

No. Abbr. Subject of the federation Capital city Federal district Economic region

Republics - республики - respubliki
01 AD Adygeya (Адыгея) Maykop (Майкоп) Southern North Caucasus

02 BA Bashkortostan (Башкортостан) Ufa (Уфа) Privolzhsky (Volga) Urals

03 BU Buryatia (Бурятия) Ulan-Ude (Улан-Удэ) Siberian East Siberia

04 AL Altai Republic (Алтай) Gorno-Altaysk (Горно-Алтайск) Siberian West Siberia

05 DA Dagestan (Дагестан) Makhachkala (Махачкала) Southern North Caucasus

06 IN Ingushetia (Ингушская) Nazran (Назрань) Southern North Caucasus

07 KB Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабардино-Балкарская) Nalchik (Нальчик) Southern North Caucasus

08 KL Kalmykia (Калмыкия) Elista (Элиста) Southern Povolzhye

09 KC Karachay-Cherkessia (Карачаево-Черкесская) Cherkessk (Черкесск) Southern North Caucasus

10 KR Karelia (Карелия) Petrozavodsk (Петрозаводск) Northwestern North

11 KO Komi (Коми) Syktyvkar (Сыктывкар) Northwestern North

12 ME Mariy El (Марий-Эл) Yoshkar-Ola (Йошкар-Ола) Privolzhsky (Volga) Volga-Vyatka

13 MO Mordovia (Мордовия) Saransk (Саранск) Privolzhsky (Volga) Volga-Vyatka

14 SA Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия)) Yakutsk (Якутск) Far Eastern Far East

15 SE North Ossetia (Alania) (Северная Осетия) Vladikavkaz (Владикавказ) Southern North Caucasus

16 TA Tatarstan (Татарстан) Kazan (Казань; Tatar: Qazan) Privolzhsky (Volga) Povolzhye

17 TY Tuva (Тува) Kyzyl (Кызыл) Siberian West Siberia

18 UD Udmurtia (Удмуртская) Izhevsk (Ижевск) Privolzhsky (Volga) Urals

19 KK Khakassia (Хакасия) Abakan (Абакан) Siberian West Siberia

20 CE Chechnya (Чеченская) Grozny (Грозный) Southern North Caucasus

21 CU Chuvashia (Чувашская (Чаваш)) Cheboksary (Чебоксары) Privolzhsky (Volga) Volga-Vyatka

Territories - края - kraya
22 ALT Altai Krai (Алтайский) Barnaul (Барнаул) Siberian West Siberia

23 KDA Krasnodar (Краснодарский) Krasnodar (Краснодар) Southern North Caucasus

24 KYA Krasnoyarsk (Красноярский) Krasnoyarsk (Красноярск) Siberian East Siberia

25 PRI Primorsky (Приморский) Vladivostok (Владивосток) Far Eastern Far East

26 STA Stavropol (Ставропольский) Stavropol (Ставрополь) Southern North Caucasus

27 KHA Khabarovsk (Хабаровский) Khabarovsk (Хабаровск) Far Eastern Far East

Provinces - области - oblasti
28 AMU Amur (Амурская) Blagoveshchensk (Благовещенск) Far Eastern Far East

29 ARK Arkhangelsk (Архангельская) Arkhangelsk (Архангельск) Northwestern North

30 AST Astrakhan (Астраханская) Astrakhan (Астрахань) Southern Povolzhye

31 BEL Belgorod (Белгородская) Belgorod (Белгород) Central Central-Chernozem

32 BRY Bryansk (Брянская) Bryansk (Брянск) Central Central

33 VLA Vladimir (Владимирская) Vladimir (Владимир) Central Central

34 VGG Volgograd (Волгоградская) Volgograd (Волгоград) Southern Povolzhye

35 VLG Vologda (Вологодская) Vologda (Вологда) Northwestern North

36 VOR Voronezh (Воронежская) Voronezh (Воронеж) Central Central-Chernozem

37 IVA Ivanovo (Ивановская) Ivanovo (Иваново) Central Central

38 IRK Irkutsk (Иркутская) Irkutsk (Иркутск) Siberian East Siberia

39 KGD Kaliningrad (Калининградская) Kaliningrad (Калининград) Northwestern Northwest

40 KLU Kaluga (Калужская) Kaluga (Калуга) Central Central

41 KAM Kamchatka (Камчатская) Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Петропавловск-Камчатский) Far Eastern Far East

42 KEM Kemerovo (Кемеровская) Kemerovo (Кемерово) Siberian West Siberia

43 KIR Kirov (Кировская) Kirov (Киров) Privolzhsky (Volga) Volga-Vyatka

44 KOS Kostroma (Костромская) Kostroma (Кострома) Central Central

45 KGN Kurgan (Курганская) Kurgan (Курган) Urals Urals

46 KRS Kursk (Курская) Kursk (Курск) Central Central-Chernozem

47 LEN Leningrad (Ленинградская) St. Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург) Northwestern Northwest

48 LIP Lipetsk (Липецкая) Lipetsk (Липецк) Central Central-Chernozem

49 MAG Magadan (Магаданская) Magadan (Магадан) Far Eastern Far East

50 MOS Moscow (Московская) Moscow (Москва) Central Central

51 MUR Murmansk (Мурманская) Murmansk (Мурманск) Northwestern North

52 NIZ Nizhny Novgorod (Нижегородская) Nizhny Novgorod (Нижний Новгород) Privolzhsky (Volga) Volga-Vyatka

53 NGR Novgorod (Новгородская) Novgorod (Новгород) Northwestern Northwest

54 NVS Novosibirsk (Новосибирская) Novosibirsk (Новосибирск) Siberian West Siberia

55 OMS Omsk (Омская) Omsk (Омск) Siberian West Siberia

56 ORE Orenburg (Оренбургская) Orenburg (Оренбург) Privolzhsky (Volga) Urals

57 ORL Oryol (Орловская) Oryol (Орёл) Central Central

58 PNZ Penza (Пензенская) Penza (Пенза) Privolzhsky (Volga) Povolzhye

59 PER Perm (Пермская) Perm (Пермь) Privolzhsky (Volga) Urals

60 PSK Pskov (Псковская) Pskov (Псков) Northwestern Northwest

61 ROS Rostov (Ростовская) Rostov-na-Donu (Ростов) Southern North Caucasus

62 RYA Ryazan (Рязанская) Ryazan (Рязань) Central Central

63 SAM Samara (Самарская) Samara, Russia (Самара) Privolzhsky (Volga) Povolzhye

64 SAR Saratov (Саратовская) Saratov (Саратов) Privolzhsky (Volga) Povolzhye

65 SAK Sakhalin (Сахалинская) Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Южно-Сахалинск) Far Eastern Far East

66 SVE Sverdlovsk (Свердловская) Yekaterinburg (Екатеринбург) Urals Urals

67 SMO Smolensk (Смоленская) Smolensk (Смоленск) Central Central

68 TAM Tambov (Тамбовская) Tambov (Тамбов) Central Central-Chernozem

69 TVE Tver (Тверская) Tver (Тверь) Central Central

70 TOM Tomsk (Томская) Tomsk (Томск) Siberian West Siberia

71 TUL Tula (Тульская) Tula (Тула) Central Central

72 TYU Tyumen (Тюменская) Tyumen (Тюмень) Urals West Siberia

73 ULY Ulyanovsk (Ульяновская) Ulyanovsk (Ульяновск) Privolzhsky (Volga) Povolzhye

74 CHE Chelyabinsk (Челябинская) Chelyabinsk (Челябинск) Urals Urals

75 CHI Chita (Читинская) Chita (Чита) Siberian East Siberia

76 YAR Yaroslavl (Ярославская) Yaroslavl (Ярославль) Central Central

Federal cities - федеральные города - federalnyye goroda
77 MOW Moscow (Москва) Central Central

78 SPE St. Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург) Northwestern Northwest

Autonomous oblast - автономная область - avtonomnaya oblast
79 YEV Jewish (Еврейская) Birobidzhan (Биробиджан) Far Eastern Far East
Please note that on the map, it's actually a small yellow segment to the east labeled 29, situated between 28 and 27.

Autonomous districts - автономные округа - avtonomnyye okruga
80 AGB Aga Buryatia (Агинский-Бурятский) Aginskoye (Агинское) Siberian East Siberia

81 KOP Permyakia (Коми-Пермяцкий) Kudymkar (Кудымкар) Privolzhsky (Volga) Urals

82 KOR Koryakia (Корякский) Palaba (Палаба) Far Eastern Far East

83 NEN Nenetsia (Ненецкий) Naryan-Mar (Нарьян-Мар) Northwestern North

84 TAY Taymyria (Таймырский (Долгано-Ненецкий)) Dudinka (Дудинка) Siberian East Siberia

85 UOB Ust-Orda Buryatia (Усть-Ордынский Бурятский) Ust-Ordynsky (Усть-Ордынский) Siberian East Siberia

86 KHM Khantia-Mansia (Ханты-Мансийский) Khanty-Mansiysk (Ханты-Мансийск) Urals West Siberia

87 CHU Chukotka (Чукотский) Anadyr (Анадырь) Far Eastern Far East

88 EVE Evenkia (Эвенкийский) Tura (Тура) Siberian East Siberia

89 YAN Yamalia (Ямало-Ненецкий) Salekhard (Салехард) Urals West Siberia

Related articles

Subdivisions of Russia, Federal districts of Russia, Economic regions of Russia, Republics of Russia, Oblasts of Russia, Krais of Russia.