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D is B's exclave, but is not an enclave.
C is B's exclave, and A's enclave.
An exclave is a territory that belongs to political entity but is not connected to it and is surrounded by other political entities. A good example is the region around the Russian city Kaliningrad. It belongs to the Russian Federation, but is separated from the rest of that country by territory belonging to Lithuania, Latvia and Belarus.

Although both meanings are close, an exclave may not necessarily be an enclave. Kaliningrad is not surrounded by one state only, but by two: Lithuania and Poland and it also borders the Baltic Sea. On the other hand, the Spanish exclave of Llívia is a French enclave.

Other exclaves that are not enclaves include: the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.

Examples of exclaves in subnational units include the traditional counties of Flintshire, Wales and Cromartyshire, Scotland, in the United Kingdom.

List of exclaves

External links