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Europe
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Europe

The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. See (and )
For the band of the same name, see Europe (band).

Europe is a continent whose boundaries are generally regarded as being: the Atlantic Ocean in the west, the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Ural Mountains and Ural River (or Emba River) in the east, the Caspian Sea, Caucasus mountains (or the Kuma-Manych Depression) and Black Sea in the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Together with Asia, Europe forms the supercontinent Eurasia, of which Europe is the western fifth.

In terms of area, Europe is the world's second smallest continent, with an area of 10,400,000 km˛ (4,000,000 square miles), making it slightly larger than Australia.

In terms of population it is the third largest continent after Asia and Africa. The population of Europe in 2001 was estimated to be 666,498,000: roughly one seventh of the world's population.

Table of contents
1 Etymology
2 History
3 Geography and Extent
4 Independent states
5 Dependent Territories
6 Regions in Europe
7 See also
8 External links

Etymology

According to Homer the name Europe (Greek: Ευρώπη) was originally given to central Greece. Later it stood for mainland Greece and by 500 BC its meaning was extended to all the lands of the north.

The term Europe is often said to derive from Greek words meaning broad (eurys) and face (ops). Many, however, see a Semitic origin, pointing to the Semitic word ereb which means "sunset". From a Middle Eastern viewpoint, the sun sets over Europe: the lands to the west.

In ancient mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess who was abducted by a bull-shaped Zeus.

History

Main article: History of Europe

Europe has a long history of great cultural and economic achievement, starting as far back as the palaeolithic. The origin of Western culture is generally attributed to the ancient Greeks, and the Roman Empire spanned the entire continent for many centuries. Following the decline of the Roman Empire, Europe entered a long period of stasis, referred to by enlightenment thinkers as the Dark Ages and by most modern historians, the Middle Ages. During this time isolated monastic communities in Ireland and elsewhere carefully safeguarded and compiled knowledge accumulated previously. The Dark Ages came to an end with the Renaissance and the New Monarchs, marking the start of a period of discovery, exploration, and increase in scientific knowledge. From the 15th century European nations, particularly Spain, Portugal, France, the Netherlands and Britain, built large colonial empires, with vast holdings in Africa, the Americas, and Asia. The Industrial Revolution started in Europe in the 18th century, leading to much greater general prosperity and a corresponding increase in population. Many of the states in Europe took their present form in the aftermath of World War I. After World War II, and until the end of the Cold War, Europe was divided into two major political and economic blocks: Communist nations in Eastern Europe and capitalistic countries in Western Europe. Around 1990 the Eastern block broke up.

Geography and Extent

Geographically Europe is a part of the larger landmass known as Eurasia. The continent begins at the Ural Mountains in Russia, which defines Europe's eastern boundary with Asia. The boundary with Asia continues along the Ural River, and the Caucasus Mountains to the south. There is ongoing debate on where the geographical centre of Europe is.

In practice the borders of Europe are often drawn with greater regard to political, economic, and other cultural considerations. This has led to there being several different "Europes" that are not always identical in size, including or excluding countries according to the definition of "Europe" used.

Almost all European countries are members of the Council of Europe, the exceptions being Belarus, the Holy See (Vatican City), Kazakhstan, and Monaco.

The idea of a European "continent" is not universally held. Some non-European geographical texts refer to a Eurasian Continent, or to a European "sub-continent", given that "Europe" is not surrounded by sea and is, in any case, much more a cultural than a geographically definable area. In the past concepts such as "Christendom" were deemed more important.

Confusingly, the word "Europe" is increasingly being used as a short-form for the European Union (EU) and its member states. 25 European countries currently belong to the EU. A number of other European countries are negotiating for membership and several more are expected to begin negotiations in the future.

Independent states

Europe comprises the following independent states (in alphabetical order):
   

Notes

1 This country is geographically in Asia, but it is considered a part of Europe for cultural and historical reasons.
2 This country lies partly in Europe according to definitions which consider the main watershed of the
Caucasus as the boundary with Asia.
3 Kazakhstan's European territory consists of a portion west of the Ural River.
4 The name of this state is a matter of international dispute. View its main article for details.
5 Those territories of Russia lying west of the Ural Mountains are considered as part of Europe.
6 European Turkey comprises territory to the west and north of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles straits.

Dependent Territories

The territories listed below are recognised as being culturally and geographically defined. Most have a degree of autonomy. In brackets is the state which administers the territory.

Regions in Europe

See Regions of Europe

Map colouring is based on strict geographic definitions. Often the various regions include different countries than those on the map. The inclusion or not of various countries in each region is described below:

Western Europe (Red)

Western Europe is always assumed to include: the British Isles (United Kingdom, Ireland), the French Region (France, Monaco) and Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg). It usually also includes Germany, though geographically the country may be more central European. In some circumstances, it refers to the entire western half of Europe, including the Iberian Peninsula (Spain, Portugal, Andorra), the Italian peninsula (Italy, San Marino, Vatican City), the Nordic Countries or Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Denmark) and the Alpine Countries (Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Slovenia). Used in a historical or political sense (referring to Cold War divisions), this term may even include Greece and Turkey.

Central Europe (Blue)

Central Europe is not perhaps as common a term as Western or Eastern Europe. Most of the countries included in the definition are often labelled Western or Eastern. A definition of Central Europe usually includes the Alpine Countries (Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Slovenia) – though not always Germany – and also the Visegrad Group (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary).

Eastern Europe (Brown)

Similarly to Western Europe, the term Eastern Europe may be used in a strict or broad sense. It usually includes the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and the European CIS States (Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia). It often includes the Caucasus or Transcaucasian countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia), though these are often also regarded as part of Asia. In a broader economic/political context, it may also encompass the Visegrad Group (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary) and the Balkan Peninsula (Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia & Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria).

Northern Europe (Purple)

The term Northern Europe, in its strictest sense, refers to the Nordic Countries or Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Denmark). Estonia may also be included. In a broader sense, it is usually used as a cultural division, again, encompassing the entire northern half of Europe. This includes the British Isles (United Kingdom, Ireland), Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) and usually Northern France and Germany. Poland. Often, all the Baltic Countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) are also included.

Southern Europe (Green)

Southern Europe is a term used in much the same ways as Northern Europe. It includes the Iberian Peninsula (Spain, Portugal, Andorra), the Italian peninsula (Italy, Vatican City, San Marino) and the Balkan Peninsula (Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia & Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria). Usually the Mediterranean States (Cyprus, Malta) and Asia Minor (i.e. Turkey) are also included. In a cultural sense, southern France may be included.

See also

External links


  Continents of the World [ Edit {}]
Asia | Africa | North America | South America | Antarctica | Europe | Australia
(The Pacific Islands in Oceania are not part of any continent)