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Espírito Santo
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Espírito Santo

Inhabitants:2,800,000 (?)
Pop. density:58.5 inh./km²
Timezone:GMT -3
ISO 3166-2:BR-ES
Governor:Paulo Hartung

Espírito Santo is one of the states of southeastern Brazil. Those who are born in the state are known as Capixabas. The state is also frequently referred to as ES, which stands for Espírito Santo.

Table of contents
1 Flag
2 Location
3 History
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 List all of Municipal Capitals
7 External Link


The words in the central bar of the flag, Trabalha e Confia translate to "Work and Trust [in God]". This motto is a truncated version of the motto of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits): "Work as if everything depended on you, and trust as if everything depended on God." The motto being created by Jerônimo Monteiro. The flag design was created in 1908, with the colours being inspired by the colours of Saint Our Mother of Vitória's (Nossa Senhora da Vitória in portuguese) clothes.


This Brazilian state is in the east of the southeastern subdivision of
Brazil, which also contains the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. It has as its limits: The Atlantic Ocean (E), the state of Bahia (N), the state of Minas Gerais (N) and (W), and the state of Rio de Janeiro (S). Espírito Santo's main cities (outside of the Grater Vitoria rigion) are Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Colatina, Guarapari, Linhares, Muniz Freire and Vila Velha.


First inhabited by Amerindians, whose different tribes were usually semi-nomadic, the area was colonized by the portuguese and subsequently descendents of black slaves and later adittion of many european immigrants.

Colonial Era

The area had been granted to Vasco Coutinho just after the discovery of
Brazil in 1500. He arrived at the district (capitania in Portuguese) of Espírito Santo on May 23 1535, bringing 60 soldiers, slaves and servants with him.

The capital of the district was at first Vila Velha, but because of frequent raids by Amerindians, it was moved to the current capital of Vitória, founded on September 8 1551, on an island near Vila Velha.

In 1556, after the arrival of missionaries, Serra, Nova Almeida and Santa Cruz were founded.


The district remained under the influence of Coutinho's family for 140 years. It remained a district for 287 years until 1821, when it became a province.


During the first 300 years the main cashcrop was sugarcane up until 1850 when coffee took over that position. During the colonial era there were also moments of gold rush when argiculture was left aside and food shorteges happened, but not much was found in Epirito Santo. Another factor that impeeded expansion of colonization was the prohibition of road opening into Minas Gerais where it was feared smuggling would be encouraged through Espirito Santo.


With the Brazilian declaration of independence in 1822, the District Directors became known as Provincial Presidents. In the same way the district of Espírito Santo became Espírito Santo Provice. During this period in 1860 the Emperor Peter the II, who was on good terms with the provincial President visited the state on one of his tours of Brazil and there are still surviving accounts of what he saw and recorded.

The Republic

In 1889, with the advent of the Brazilian Republic, it finally became a state.

Economically, the state relied largely on sugarcane plantations up until the 1850s when coffee, in high demand in Europe, began to overtake it.

After the adoption of a republican system, Afonso Cláudio de Freitas Rosa became the first governor of Espírito Santo state. He was followedd in 1892 by Muniz Freire who came to power for two terms, followed by Jerônimo Monteiro, who stayed in office from 1908 to 1912.


After Getúlio Vargas took power, the governors were elected by the national congress, after this, a number of interveeners were sent to govern the state. A short period of democracy returned when Carlos Monteiro Lindenberg was elected by Capixabas. However, after the 1964 military coup interveeners were once again chosen by the national assembly. After Cristiano Dias Lopes, Arthur Carlos Gerhard Santos, Elcio Álvares and Eurico Rezende being chosen this way,


open elections chose Gerson Camata through to José Inácio Ferreira, who came into office in 1999.


At 46.180Square kilometers it is about the size of Estonia, and has a variety of habitats including coastal planes, lakes, mountain forest, mangroves and many others.


The state can be divided into two areas: the low lying coastline and the highland area known as Serra, where one finds the Pico da Bandeira mountain (2,890m), which is part of the larger Serra do Caparaó, the Caparaó Highlands. In the map to the right it is in the gray area in the extreme south west of the state and is shared with Minas Gerais.


The main river in the state is the Doce. Other important river basins include the Santa Maria River Basin which is the Northern branch of rivers which join the sea at Vitoria, and Jucu River Basin which also flows into the sea at roughly the same place, but corresponds to the southern branch (which seems to come out of Vitoria) (See also
Espírito Santo Municipalities)


one of the most important lake districts in Brazil lies on the banks of the Doce river. the are contains some 26 large lakes, the biggest of which is called Juparanã Lake.


Generally dry and hot north of the Doce river, and with cold mountain climates in the south-south west. And hot subtropical along all the coast, with dry winters and rainy suummers.


The main crops of the state are rice, coffee (one of the most important cash crops in Brazil), cacao, sugarcane, beans, fruit (mostly bananas and papayas) and maize. The livestock industry, important throughout Brazil, is primarily cattle raised for milk and beef. Industry consists mainly of canning, forestry, textiles, iron and steel works. The latter two are concentrated around Cariacica and the "Vale do Rio Doce" ironworks.

Vitória is an important port for exporting iron and steel (biggest steal producer in the world). In São Mateus petroleum reserves have been found on its continental shelf, and today are being commercially exploited.

Tourism plays an ever increasing role in the state economy. However, most of the visitors are from neighbouring states, rather than foreigners. Popular destinations include coastal areas such as Guarapari, Jacaraípe or Manguinhos, but mountain retreats such as Domingos Martins are also popular.Guarapari is a local tourist destination, known for its curative black sand beaches.

List all of Municipal Capitals

(within Espírito Santo) (See also Espírito Santo Municipalities)

External Link

States of Brazil
Acre | Alagoas | Amapá | Amazonas | Bahia | Ceará | Federal District | Espírito Santo | Goiás | Maranhão | Mato Grosso | Mato Grosso do Sul | Minas Gerais | Pará | Paraíba | Paraná | Pernambuco | Piauí | Rio de Janeiro | Rio Grande do Norte | Rio Grande do Sul | Rondônia | Roraima | Santa Catarina | São Paulo | Sergipe | Tocantins