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East Germany
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East Germany

For the historical eastern German provinces, see Eastern Germany

The German Democratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR, or GDR), commonly known as East Germany, was a Communist Party-led state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. The GDR was proclaimed in the Soviet sector of Berlin on October 7, 1949. It was declared fully sovereign in 1954, but Soviet troops remained on grounds of the four-power Potsdam agreement. East Germany was a member of the Warsaw Pact. Following free elections, it merged into the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990.

In the Federal Republic of Germany, until the seventies, the GDR was referred to as Middle Germany or SBZ (Soviet occupation zone).

Deutsche Demokratische Republik
(Flag of East Germany) (Coat of Arms of East Germany)
National motto: none''
Official language German
Capital East Berlin official: "Berlin, Hauptstadt der DDR" (Berlin, Capital of the GDR)
Area 108,333 km²
 - Total (1989)
 - Density
Constitution October 7, 1949
Currency 1 Mark ('\'Ostmark'') =
100 Pfennig
Time zone UTC +1
National anthem Auferstanden aus Ruinen
(Risen from ruins)
Calling Code+37 (obsolete)
ISO 3166-1DD (obsolete)
ISO 3166-3DDDE

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Subdivisions
4 Economy
5 Demographics
6 Culture
7 Miscellaneous topics
8 External links


Main articles: History of East Germany, History of Germany

At the end of World War II, at the Potsdam Conference in 1945, the victorious countries France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union decided to divide Germany into four parts. Each country controlled a part of former Germany.

The territories of East Germany were initially settled by Slavic Wends and conquered by Germany in Middle Ages. The newly acquired land was organised in Markts, German feudal states on the land of Slavs. Consequent waves of German settlements, later also Jewish and French Hugenots, gradually advert ethnic composition of land, except the small community of Sorbs in Lusatia. Most of East Germany became later part of Kingdom of Prussia.

In Imperial Germany and Weimar Republic territory that would become East Germany was situated in the center of the state. This territory was known as "Mitteldeutschland" (Middle Germany), while "East" was reserved for provinces such as eastern Pomerania, eastern Brandenburg, Silesia and East and West Prussia. During WWII, Allied leaders decided at the Yalta Conference that post-war borders of Poland would be moved westward to the Oder-Neisse line, just as Soviet borders were also moved westward into formerly Polish territory.

Discussions at Yalta and Potsdam also outlined the planned occupation and administration of post-war Germany under a four-power Allied Control Council, or ACC (composed of the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union). The Länder (states) of Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, and the eastern sector of Greater Berlin fell in the Soviet Sector of Germany, or SBZ. Soviet objections to economic and political reforms in western (US, UK, and French) occupation zones led to Soviet withdrawl from the ACC in 1948 and subsequent evolution of the SBZ into the GDR. Concurrently, the western occupation zones consolidated to form the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, or West Germany).

East Germany, under Soviet influence, adopted a Marxist-Leninist official ideology and became part of the Warsaw Pact, while West Germany, influenced by the USA, became a liberal parliamentary republic and part of NATO. The first leader of the GDR was Walter Ulbricht. The East German Constitution defined the country as "a Republic of Workers and Peasants."

On June 17, 1953, following a decree by the state that all production quotas were to be raised by 10%, German workers demonstrated in East Berlin and other industrial centers demanding free elections. Later that day, Soviet troops and tanks suppressed the demonstrations with the loss of hundreds of lives. [1] See Straße des 17. Juni and Workers' Uprising of 1953 in East Germany

Just as Germany was divided after the war, Berlin, the former capital, of Germany was divided into four sectors. Since Berlin was entirely enclosed in the Soviet part of Germany, the areas of Berlin being held under the control of the three western countries soon became known as West Berlin. Conflict over the status of West Berlin led to the Berlin Airlift.

The increasing prosperity of West Germany and growing political oppression in the East led large numbers of East Germans to flee to the West. The increasing depopulation in the GDR caused the political leadership to order the borders closed, with fences, turrets, dogs and most of all huge walls (DDR border system) which included the Berlin Wall, in 1961. The Stasi spied extensively on the citizens to suppress dissenters.

Competition with the West was carried also on the sport level. East German athletes were sure winners in several Olympic disciplines. Of special interest was the only football match ever between West and East Germany, a first round match during the 1974 World Cup. Though West Germany was the host and the eventual champion, East beat West 1-0.

When East Germany closed the western borders, it also literally enclosed West Berlin within a huge wall, the Berlin Wall. Travel was greatly restricted into, and particularly out of, East Germany. Many who had come to East Germany as anti-fascistss who were opposed to the quick reinstatement of Nazi functionaries and industry in the west found themselves captives of a dogmatic and economically weak state which, alone, was forced to pay reparations to the Soviet Union. In 1971, Erich Honecker overthrew Ulbricht in a technical coup. Despite the inefficiencies of Communism, East Germany was generally regarded as the most economically advanced of the Warsaw Pact.

Before the 1970s, the official position of West Germany was that of the Hallstein Doctrine which involved non-recognition of East Germany. In the early 1970s, Ostpolitik led by Willy Brandt led to mutual recognition between East and West Germany.

In August 1989 Hungary removed its border restrictions and many people fled East Germany by crossing the "green" border into Hungary and then on to Austria and West Germany. Many others peacefully demonstrated against the ruling party. These demonstrations eventually forced the resignation of Honecker; in October he was replaced, albeit briefly, by Egon Krenz.

On November 9th, 1989 the Berlin Wall fell and on 22 December the Brandenburg Gate re-opened and with it the whole socialist system of East Germany fell away. Although there were some small attempts to create a non-socialist East Germany, these were soon overwhelmed by calls for reunification with West Germany. After some negotiations (2+4 Talks, involving the two Germanies and the victory powers United States, France, Britain, and the Soviet Union), conditions for German reunification were agreed on. Thus, on October 3rd 1990 the East German population was the first from the Eastern Bloc to join the European Union as a part of the reunified Federal Republic of Germany. The East German territory was divided into what is now the city of Berlin and five states.

To this day, there remain many differences between the formerly "eastern" and "western" parts of Germany (e.g. in lifestyle, wealth, political beliefs and such) and thus it is still common to speak of eastern and western Germany distinctly; one would hesitate however to contend it is greater than say that between a southern Bavarian and a Hamburg resident. In this new Germany the economic chasm is greater than in the former West Germany, and much greater than in the former East Germany. Unemployment and long term poverty have led sometimes to an uncomfortable recurrence of nationalist and neofascist sentiments.

The costs of German reunification have greatly slowed the German economy.


Main article: Politics of East Germany

The equivalent of the Communist Party in the GDR was the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (Socialist Unity Party of Germany, SED), which along with other parties, was part of the National Front of Democratic Germany. It was created in 1946 through the merger of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) in the Soviet controlled zone, although the SPD remained a separate party in East Berlin. Following reunification, the SED was renamed the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS).

The other political parties ran under the joint slate of the National Front, controlled by the SED, for elections to the Volkskammer, the East German Parliament.

  1. Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands (Christian Democratic Union of Germany, CDU), merged with the West-German CDU after reunification
  2. Liberal-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands (Liberal Democratic Party of Germany, LDPD), merged with the West-German FDP after reunification
  3. Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (National Democratic Party of Germany, NDPD)
  4. Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands (Democratic Farmers' Party of Germany, DBD)

The Volkskammer also included representatives from the mass organisations like the Free German Youth (Freie Deutsche Jugend or FDJ), or the Free German Trade Union Federation. In an attempt to include women in the political life in the GDR, there was even a Democratic Women's Federation of Germany with seats in the Volksammer.

Non-parliamentary mass organisations which nevertheless played a key role in East German society included the German Gymnastics and Sports Association and People's Solidarity (an organisation for the elderly). Another society of note (and very popular during the late 1980s) was the Society for German-Soviet Friendship.

Politicians of note in the GDR included:


Main article:
Subdivisions of East Germany

In 1952, the Länder of East Germany were abolished, and the GDR was divided into Bezirke (districts), each named after the largest city: Rostock; Schwerin; Neubrandenburg; Magdeburg; Potsdam; Berlin; Frankfurt (Oder); Cottbus; Halle; Erfurt; Leipzig; Dresden; Karl-Marx-Stadt (now Chemnitz); Gera; Suhl


Main article: Economy of East Germany


Main article: Demographics of East Germany


Main article: Culture of East Germany

DateEnglish NameLocal NameRemarks
January 1New Year's DayNeujahr 
Moveable feastGood FridayKarfreitagEaster
Moveable feastWhitmonday 51 days after Easter
May 1May DayTag der Arbeit 
October 7Republic DayTag der RepublikNational holiday
December 25Christmas Day  
December 26Boxing Day  

Miscellaneous topics

Main article: List of German Democratic Republic-related topics

External links

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