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Defensive wall
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Defensive wall

Defensive walls were common from the ancient period into the medieval period. Generally, these are referred to as city walls, although there were also walls, such as the Great Wall of China and the Atlantic Wall, which extended far beyond the borders of a city and were used to enclose vast regions.

City walls were still occasionally used as late as the 19th century although by this time they were generally of wood (rather than stone) construction and used only around small frontier settlements. City walls also had towers and were frequently surrounded by trenches.

The practice of building these massive walls had been developed sometime before the rise of the Sumerian Empire and was connected with the rise of city-states.

Oftentimes the walls proved impenetrable to attacking armies which then laid siege to the city.

Within walled cities, the poor and "noxious trades" were generally located near or outside the walls.

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2 Croatia
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5 Israel
6 Middle East
7 Morocco and Western Sahara
8 Poland
9 Spain
10 Turkey
11 United Kingdom
12 United States
13 See also






Middle East

Morocco and Western Sahara




United Kingdom

United States

See also