# Dance notation

**Dance notation** is the symbolic representation of dance movement, it is analogous to Movement notation but can be limited to representing human movement and specific forms of dance such as Tap dance. Various methods have been to used to visually represent dance movements including:

- abstract symbols
- figurative representation
- track or path mapping
- Numerical systemss
- music notation
- Graphic notation
- Letter and word notations

Several notation systems are used only for specific dance formss, for example, Shorthand Dance Notation (dances from Israel), Morris Dance Notation (Morris dance) and Beauchamp-Feuillet notation (Historical dances from the Baroque period).

Hutchinson Guest's seminal book *Choreographics* (1989), compares thirteen historical and present-day dance notation systems (with visual examples) and through 'one to one' comparisons illustrates the advantages, and disadvantages of each system. The book is good introduction to the development and implementation dance notation systems.

Table of contents |

2 Related articles 3 Further reading 4 External links |

## Notation and Computers

In the field of Dance technology there are four areas of dance notation research and development:

- notation editing software for the creation of printed notation scores
- machine-readable versions of existing dance notation
- handwritten and / or machine readable dance notation for computer animation and Human use
- machine specific movement notation such as Motion capture data

## Related articles

- Labanotation
- Motif Description (a subset of Labanotation)
- Benesh Movement Notation
- DanceWriting
- Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation
- Action Stroke Dance Notation
- Shorthand Dance Notation
- Conté Movement Notation
- Morris Dance Notation
- Beauchamp-Feuillet notation

- Dance
- List_of_dances
- Choreography
- Choreology
- Notation

## Further reading

- Cage, J. and Knowles, A. (1973)
*Notations*. Reprint Services Corp. ISBN 0685148645 - Henner, D (2003)
*Transformationen - Bewegung in Notation und digitaler Verarbeitung*in Fellsches, J (Ed) Folkwang-Texte Bd. 18. Verlag Die Blaue Eule, Essen. ISBN 389924057X - Hutchinson Guest, A. (1989)
*Choreographics: A Comparison of Dance Notation Systems from the Fifteenth Century to the Present*. Routledge ISBN 9057000032 - Neagle, R.J. and Ng, K.C. (2003)
*Machine-representation and Visualisation of a Dance Notation*. in Proceedings of Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts - London July 2003.

## External links

### Dance notation systems

- Laban Lab (learn the basics of Labanotation)
- The Dance Notation Bureau (Labannotation)
- International Council of Kinetography Laban
- Motif Description
- the Benesh Institute
- Sutton DanceWriting
- Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation
- Action Stroke Dance Notation
- Conte Movement Notation
- Shorthand Dance Notation
- Morris Dance Notation
- Dance Graphical Notation System

### Dance notation software

- LabanWriter - Labanotation editor for Apple Macintosh OS 8.6 +
- LED - a UNIX and X windows mini-editor for Labanotation
- Calaban - AutoCAD Labanotation editor for Microsoft Windows
- The Benesh Notation Editor - Benesh notation editor for Microsoft Windows
- Macbenesh - Benesh notation editor for Apple Macintosh (pre OSX)
- EW Notator - Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation editor for Microsoft Windows
- DANCE - Ballroom dance pattern editor for Microsoft Windows

### Dance Technology / dance notation applications

- DanceForms - dance animation software for Macintosh OSX and Microsoft Windows
- Expressive Character Animation - Expressive Ballet animation using Benesh Notation
- LINTER - a UNIX and X windows for LED that generates animation via the NUDES animation system
- [http://www-staff.mcs.uts.edu.au/~don/pubs/ballones.html BALLONES} - 'Ballet Animation Language Linked Over Nudes Ellipsoid System' a lexical computer interpreter of Classical Ballet terminology
- Country Dance animation project - Java and XML animation
- Computer Choreography / Choreology Project - using Labanotation (development on hold)
- Morris Dance Notation uses the
*abc musical notation language*and related software for UNIX, Macintosh, Microsoft Windows and MIDI applications.