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Czech language
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Czech language

The Czech language is one of the West Slavic languages, along with Slovak, Polish, Pomeranian, and Sorbian. It is spoken by most people in the Czech Republic and by Czechs all over the world (about 12 million native speakers in total).

Czech (čeština)
Spoken in: Czech Republic
Region: --
Total speakers: 12 million
Ranking: 73
Official status
Official language of: Czech Republic
Regulated by: Czech Language Institute
Language codes
ISO 639-1: cs
ISO 639-2(B): cze
ISO 639-2(T): ces

Because of its complexity, Czech is said to be a difficult language to learn. The complexity is due to extensive morphology and highly free word order. As in any Slavic language, many words (esp. nouns, verbs, and adjectives) have many forms. Moreover the rules are extremelly irregular and many forms have official, colloquial and sometimes semi-official variants. The word order serves similar function as emphasis and articles in English. Often all the permutations of words in a clause are possible.

Czech's phonology may also be very difficult for speakers of many other languages. For example, some words do not appear to have vowels: zmrzl, ztvrdl, scvrkl, čtvrthrst. A popular example of this is the phrase "strč prst skrz krk" meaning "stick a finger down your throat". The consonants l and r, however, function as sonorants and thus fulfill the role of a vowel. A similar phenomenon also occurs American English (bird is pronounced as [brd] with a syllabic r). It also features the consonant ř, a phoneme that is said to be unique to Czech and quite difficult for foreigners to pronounce (it's close a sound that would be written as rzh in English).

Table of contents
1 Morphology
2 External links


Parts of speech

Only nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numbers and verbs have inflections or declensions; remaining kinds have no morphology. Flexible kinds have additional morphological attributes.


The cases of Czech are nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, instrumental, locative, and vocative. The numbers are singular, plural, and remains of dual. The genders are masculine animate, masculine inanimate, feminine, and neuter.

See also: Czech alphabet, hacek, Frequently used Czech verbs

External links