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Chivalry refers to the medieval institution of knighthood, and especially the ideals that were associated with it, or have become associated with it through literature. It was often also associated with ideals of knightly virtues, honour and of courtly love.

The word comes from the Latin cabellerius, or "cavalry". The French chevalier and the English cavalier derive their names from the same word. The intention, in all these cases, is to distinguish the aristocratic knight on horseback from the peasant infantryman walking with his pike and the artilleryman dragging his vulgar machinery. The word is still used to apply today, though anyone can exhibit it; for instance, a man who gives up a subway seat to a woman might be seen as exhibiting chivalry. However, he might also be accused of being patronizing.

The basic virtues included:

See also: Chivalry is also the name of a fictional ghost town in Montana in the book Max the Mighty.