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British colonization of the Americas
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British colonization of the Americas

History of the Americas
Viking colonization
British colonization
Danish colonization
Dutch colonization
French colonization
German colonization
Portuguese colonization
Russian colonization
Scottish colonization
Spanish colonization
Swedish colonization

British colonization of the Americas began in the late 16th century. Colonies were established in North, Central and South America and in the Caribbean, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii.

Table of contents
1 British North America
2 British North American colonies
3 British Caribbean Colonies
4 British Central and South American Colonies
5 See also

British North America

See also Colonial America.

The English established colonies along the east coast of North America from Newfoundland as far south as Florida. Initially, the name "Virginia" was applied to the entire coast. Early colonies included the Jamestown Settlement founded in 1607 as the first successful English colony in North America, as well as the Popham Colony, founded the same year in present-day Maine, which was abandoned after one year. The Cuper's Cove settlement was founded in Newfoundland in 1610. The Plymouth Colony was founded in 1620, and after the 1620s a series of colonies were established along the northeast coast of North America, including the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which was founded in 1632. See British colonial grants in North America (1621-1639).

A number of English colonies were established under a system of Proprietary Governors who were appointed under mercantile charters to English joint stock companies to found and run settlements.

There was also an early unsuccessful Scottish attempt at a colony at Darien, and the colonisation of Nova Scotia is associated with Scotland.

England also took over the Dutch colony of New Netherland (including the New Amsterdam settlement) which was renamed New York in 1664. With New Netherland the British came to control the former New Sweden which the Dutch had conquered earlier. This became part of Pennsylvania. Britain acquired the French colony of New France and the Spanish colony of Florida in 1763. New France became the Canadas.

In the north the Hudson's Bay Company actively traded for fur with the Indians, and had competed with French fur traders. The company came to control the entire drainage basin of Hudson Bay called Rupert's Land. The Hudson Bay drainage south of the 49th parallel went to the United States in 1818. Britain also colonized the west coast of North America with the colonies of Vancouver Island, founded in 1849 and New Caledonia, founded in 1846 (later combined and named British Columbia). In 1867 the colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada (the southern portion of modern-day Ontario and Quebec) combined to form modern Canada. Quebec (including what is now the southern portion of Ontario) and Nova Scotia had been conquered from the French. The colonies of Prince Edward Island, and British Columbia joined over the next six years, and Newfoundland joined in 1949. Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory were ceded to Canada in 1870. This area now consists of the provinces of Manitoba (admitted after negotiation between Canada and a Métis provisional government in 1870), Saskatchewan, and Alberta, as well as the Northwest Territories and the territory of Nunavut.

Thirteen of Britain's colonies rebelled, beginning in 1776, primarily over tax issues, and established the United States of America.

British North American colonies

British Caribbean Colonies

In order of settlement or founding

British Central and South American Colonies

See also