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The bandoneón is an accordion-like instrument particularly popular in Argentina. It plays an essential role in the orquesta tipica, the tango orchestra.

Like the accordion, the bandoneón is played by holding the instrument between both hands and either pushing in or pulling out the instrument while simultaneously pressing one or more buttons with the fingers.

Unlike the accordion, most buttons on the bandoneón produce a different note when played closing than when played opening. This means that each keyboard has actually two layouts - one for the opening notes, and one for the closing notes. Since the right and left hand keyboards are also different, this adds up to four different keyboard layouts that must be learned in order to play the instrument. Additionally, none of these keyboard layouts presents a logical sequence of notes - meaning that notes of the scale are not necessarily next to each other.

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