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Andorra
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Andorra

The Principality of Andorra is a very small landlocked principality in southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain. Once isolated it is currently a prosperous country mainly because of tourism and its status as a tax haven. Andorra is also part of the Catalan Community.

Principat d'Andorra
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: Virtus Unita Fortior
(Latin: Virtue united is stronger)
Official language Catalan
Capital Andorra la Vella
French Co-PrinceJacques Chirac
Episcopal Co-Prince Joan Enric Vives i Sicilia
Head of government Marc Forné Molné
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 178th
468 km²
Negligible
Population
 - Total (2003)
 - Density
Ranked 184th
69,150
144.5/km²
Independence 1278
Currency Euro (€)¹
Time zone UTC +1
National anthem El Gran Carlemany
Internet TLD .AD
Calling Code376
(1) Prior to 1999: Fr. franc and Sp. peseta. Some of their own currency, 1 diner of 100 centim was minted after 1982.

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Parishes
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External links

History

Main article: History of Andorra

Tradition holds that Charlemagne granted a charter to the Andorran people in return for their fighting the Moors. Overlordship over the territory was passed to the local count of Urgell and eventually to the bishop of the diocese of Urgell. In the 11th century a dispute arose between the bishop and his northern French neighbour over Andorra.

In 1278, the conflict was resolved by the signing of a pareage, which provided that Andorra's sovereignty be shared between the French count of Foix (whose title would ultimately transfer to the French head of state) and the bishop of La Seu d'Urgell, in the Catalonia region of Spain. The pareage, a feudal institution recognising the principle of equality of rights shared by two rulers, gave the small principality its territory and political form.

Over the years the title passed to the kings of Navarre, and under the king of France Henry IV, an edict in 1607 established the head of the French state and the Bishop of Urgell as co-princes of Andorra.

In 1933, serious political and social unrest led to a Russian adventurer, Boris Skossyreff seizing control and declaring himself King Boris I. He proceeded to declare war on the Bishop of Urgel. Boris I was arrested, and the French military occupied Andorra and dismissed the local government placing the Viguiers, who are delegates of the princes, in control.

Given its relative isolation, Andorra has existed outside the mainstream of European history, with few ties to countries other than France and Spain. In recent times, however, its thriving tourist industry along with developments in transportation and communications have removed the country from its isolation and its political system was thoroughly modernised in 1993.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Andorra

Until very recently, Andorra's political system had no clear division of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Ratified and approved in 1993, the constitution establishes Andorra as a sovereign parliamentary democracy that retains the co-princes as heads of state, but the head of government retains executive power. The two co-princes serve coequally with limited powers that do not include veto over government acts. They are represented in Andorra by a delegate.

Andorra's main legislative body is the unicameral General Council of the Valleys (Consell General de les Valls), a parliament of 28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7 parishes, with members serving four-year terms. The Andorran government is formed by the General Council electing the Head of Government (Cap de Govern), who then appoints ministers to the cabinet, the Executive Council (Govern).

Defense of the country is the responsibility of France and Spain.

See List of Co-Princes of Andorra

Parishes

Main article: Parishes of Andorra

Andorra consists of seven communities known as parishes (parròquies, singular - parròquia):

Geography

Main article:
Geography of Andorra

Befitting its location in the eastern Pyrenees mountain range, Andorra consist predominantly of rugged mountains of an average height of 1,996 m with the highest being the Coma Pedrosa at 2,946 m. These are dissected by three narrow valleys in a Y shape that combine into one as the main stream, the Valira river, leaves the country for Spain (at Andorra's lowest point of 870 m).

Andorra's climate is similar to its neighbours' temperate climate, but its higher altitude means there is on average more snow in winter and it's slightly cooler in summer.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Andorra

Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighbouring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs.

The banking sector, with its tax haven status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture.

Andorra is not a full member of the European Union, but enjoys a special relationship with it, e.g. it is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products. Andorra lacks a currency of its own and uses that of its two neighbours. Prior to 1999 these were the French franc and Spanish peseta, which have since been replaced by a single currency, the euro. Unlike other small European states that use the euro, Andorra does not mint its own euro coins.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Andorra

Andorrans constitute a minority in their own country; only 33% holds the Andorran nationality. The largest group of foreign nationals is that of Spaniards (43%), with Portuguese (11%) and French (7%) nationals representing the other main groups. The remaining 6% belong to other nationalities.

The only official language is Catalan, the language of the Catalan Countries it is part of, including the neighbouring Spanish autonomous region of Catalonia, with which Andorra shares many cultural traits, though Spanish and French are also commonly spoken. The predominant religion is Roman Catholicism.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Andorra

Miscellaneous topics

External links


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